Disability adjustments scenarios

This section contains a number of scenarios that provide examples of how the adjustments for students with disability, outlined in the National protocols for test administration (the protocols), may be applied. These adjustments are permitted in line with the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and Disability Standards for Education 2005, which emphasise that reasonable adjustments must be made to help ensure students with disability are able to access the NAPLAN tests where possible.

The scenarios are generic examples of students in Australian schools and are therefore to be used only as a guide for students in similar or parallel circumstances. The students at your school may be in a different situation to those outlined in these scenarios and may require different adjustments and provisions. Teachers and schools are in the best position to determine the needs of individual students, in consultation with students and their parents/carers.

On this page:

Vision impairments and/or poor motor sensory control

Luke is a Year 7 student

Scenario

  • Luke has a severe form of nystagmus, which causes rapid involuntary eye movement.
  • Luke also has a shunt in his brain and an atypical head position. To see clearly, he needs to turn his head in a particular way.
  • When Luke is anxious, his nystagmus is often exacerbated, and his ability to access text is temporarily restricted due to blurred vision.
  • Seeing what he is writing with a pen is very difficult for Luke, as his head’s position restricts his line of sight and creates tracking issues.
  • Luke regularly uses a computer to access his classroom learning and assessment.

Key points to consider

  • Luke uses assistive technology for all his regular classroom learning and assessment.
  • Timed tests may create emotional stress that can cause nystagmus to increase and Luke's vision to temporarily decrease.  
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Electronic test format 
Extra time 
Rest breaks 

Extra time 
Rest breaks 
Unsecured browser and assistive technology 
Visual alternative items (reading, numeracy tests) 
Usual physical calculator 

Luke is eligible to access the electronic test format.
It was agreed that up to 10 minutes extra time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate due to the difficulties and subsequent time Luke requires to control his eye movement. Five-minute rest breaks were permitted per half-hour of the test to account for the emotional stress Luke may experience taking a timed test. 
Luke accessed NAPLAN Online, as well as 10 minutes extra time per half-hour of the tests and five minutes rest time per half-hour of the tests.

Luke used his familiar assistive technology where it was consistent with the test construct. This may require access to an unsecured browser.

Luke accessed a physical calculator due to the difficulty in using an online calculator that which increased Luke’s emotional stress and caused his vision to temporarily decrease. A test administrator ensured a physical calculator was only used in the allowable parts of the test.

Visual alternative items allow clear magnification at 150%. When interacting with the demonstration tests, Luke found that he could effectively navigate around numeracy and reading questions.
Antonia is a Year 3 student

Scenario

  • Documentation and professional advice identify that Antonia has severe vision impairment and requires all her work provided in large font (N36).
  • Antonia has been learning braille for a few months. She is not proficient using this medium yet.
  • Previously, Antonia accessed her classroom resources using large-print materials and used the support of a scribe for writing tasks (learning and assessment) in the classroom.

Key points to consider

  • Antonia does not have fluency using the braille code.
  • Antonia uses a scribe for her writing tasks.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable  NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 
Scribe (if available for the writing test) 
Extra time 
Large print 
Braille  
NAPLAN Online is not suitable for this student  
In this case, Antonia's principal determined that a scribe and up to 5 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests were appropriate for Antonia to use when participating in the writing test (for example, to allow Antonia to request a scribe read back her words for the sake of continuity during the writing test, etc.). Antonia used large print for the other tests. 

Antonia accessed a large-print paper test and may access a scribe, with the same administration and adjustments as described for paper.

 
Rosalia is a Year 9 student
Scenario
  • Rosalia has cerebral palsy and a mild vison impairment that cannot be corrected with glasses.
  • Rosalia’s upper limb movement is severely restricted and she experiences difficulties with tasks requiring hand–eye coordination and fine motor.
  • It takes Rosalia more time to do tasks due to difficulties with her motor control.
  • Rosalia regularly uses a computer with text prediction and screen reader software (i.e. 'zoom text') to support her to complete classroom learning and assessment.
  • Rosalia may experience fatigue during the test, as she does with classroom work.
Key points to consider
  • Rosalia normally uses assistive technology in her classroom activities.
  • Rosalia has severe physical disabilities that restrict her movement.
  • Rosalia experiences higher than normal levels of fatigue when participating in tasks requiring fine motor movements.
  • Rosalia has reduced visual acuity that cannot be corrected with glasses. 
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable   NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable  

Electronic test format and assistive technology 

Rest breaks 

Extra time 

Text prediction software  

NAPLAN Online with unsecured browser and assistive technology 

Rest breaks 

Extra time 

Text prediction software  

Rosalia is eligible to use the electronic test format and her permissible assistive technology.

In this case, it was determined that up to 15 minutes of rest time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate if Rosalia needs this because of the fatigue she suffers due to her impairment. Up to 15 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was also made available to Rosalia only if she required it (too much extra time can prolong fatigue), in recognition of the severity of her impairment. This time also accounted for differences between Rosalia’s usual learning accommodations and the adjustments permissible for NAPLAN.
Rosalia has low vision and usually accesses a computer in the classroom and for assessments, as she also has disabilities that restrict her movement. Rosalia can access NAPLAN Online using her usual magnification software, as the zoom tool in NAPLAN Online does not meet her needs.

In this case, it was determined that up to 15 minutes of rest time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate if Rosalia needs this because of the fatigue she suffers due to her impairment. Up to 15 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was also made available to Rosalia only if she required it (too much extra time can prolong fatigue), in recognition of the severity of her impairment. This time also accounted for differences between Rosalia’s usual learning accommodations and the adjustments permissible for NAPLAN Online. 
James is a Year 7 student

Scenario

  • As diagnosed by a professional, James has a severe vision impairment.
  • For most of James’s classroom learning and assessment, his teachers have been providing his work in large print (a size N36).
  • James has found this method to be sufficient to complete his school learning and assessment, although sometimes he requires a few minutes longer, than other students, to complete class assessments.
  • James is also learning braille, though he is not yet proficient and is unable to access assessment tasks using this system.
  • James also uses a computer and screen magnification software (zoom text) to access some of his writing assessments. 

Key points to consider

  • James regularly uses a computer with screen magnification software to participate in his class learning and assessment.
  • The assistive technology accessed by James to complete assessments in the classroom must be best suited to addressing his need for size N36 print.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable  NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 

Extra time 

Large print 

Computer with screen magnification software (for the writing test only) 

Electronic test format 

Reading, numeracy and conventions of language tests: NAPLAN Online 

Writing test: NAPLAN Online with unsecured browser and assistive technology   

James regularly uses a computer for participating in his classroom learning and assessment. James may use a computer to type his answer to the writing test and screen magnification software ('zoom text') to review his response. James can access the remaining tests via large print.

In this case, it was agreed that up to 5 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate because of the time James may require to read the large-print materials.              

James accessed a large-print paper test for reading, numeracy and conventions of language with the same administration and adjustments as described for paper.

However, James accessed the writing test via the online browser, using his magnification software. This magnification software also required the use of the unsecured browser.

James accessed extra time (5 minutes per half-hour) as it takes longer to navigate tests with magnification.  

Sam is a Year 5 student

Scenario

  • Sam has been using braille since infancy. He accesses it for all his reading and writing materials.
  • Sam has highly proficient braille skills. He regularly uses a braille typewriter when producing written work for classroom activities and assessment tasks. 

Key points to consider

  • Sam normally uses braille in his classroom activities.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable   NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable  

Braille 

Extra time 

Electronic test format 

Scribe 

NAPLAN Online 
As a braille user, Sam requires extra time. Sam's school principal, in discussions with Sam and his parents, decided an extra 10 minutes per half-hour for the writing test, 15 minutes extra for the language conventions and reading tests, and 20 minutes extra for the numeracy test were appropriate. 
 
Sam accessed a paper-based braille format test with the same administration and adjustments as described for paper.
Jessica is a Year 9 student
Scenario
  • Jessica was born with an eye condition. She requires all her printed material to be provided in large print (font size N24).
  • Jessica has age-appropriate fine motor skills.
  • Jessica's teachers provide all her work in large print (N24) and she has been able to complete all her classroom learning and assessment as required.
  • Jessica also uses low-vision aids to assist the completion of her learning and assessment.
  • Jessica is currently developing skills in the use of zoom text magnification software and computers in the classroom. 

Key points to consider

  • Jessica requires printed material in large font (N24).
  • Large print is how Jessica generally accesses her classroom learning and assessments.
  • If large print is the adjustment that Jessica is used to, it may be detrimental to her performance to change her method of accessing text just for NAPLAN.
  • Jessica should be consulted around her confidence in using the zoom text magnification software prior to the school identifying the appropriate test format.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable   NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable  

Large print 

Extra time 

Braille 

Scribe  

NAPLAN Online 
As Jessica is adept at accessing her work in large print and has adapted well to this provision in the classroom, it was unlikely that extra time would be necessary for her to complete the tests. However, due to the logistics involved in reading large print, 5 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the test was made available to Jessica if she needed it.  Jessica continued to access a large-print paper test with the same administration and adjustments as described for paper. As she does not usually access magnification on a computer, when she accessed the demonstration tests, she found that using magnification increased her cognitive load and fatigue. 

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Autism spectrum

Calvin is a Year 5 student
Scenario
  • Calvin has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder as well as a developmental coordination disorder. He has been attending occupational therapy for a couple of years to develop his fine motor skills, including handwriting, and to assist with his organisational and planning skills.
  • Calvin also has difficulties with pencil grip, pencil control and fine motor skills, which impact on his handwriting legibility and cause him to become easily frustrated with writing tasks.
  • Calvin‘s need to concentrate on letter formation and the constraints of letter size due to writing on lined paper contribute to his inability to complete written work.
  • The pressure Calvin applies to his pencil grip often destroys his bookwork.
  • Calvin has been using a computer to complete his classroom tasks.

Key points to consider

  • Calvin regularly uses a computer to complete all his usual classroom activities.
  • Calvin benefits from having regular routines and practising for upcoming activities.
  • Calvin will benefit from having access to a social story of what will be happening during the assessment and from using the demonstration test several times before the assessment.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Computer for the writing test (text prediction / spell check off) 

NAPLAN support person 

Rest breaks (for the writing test) 

Electronic test format 

NAPLAN support person 

Rest breaks (for the writing test) 

It was agreed that Calvin be permitted to access up to 5 minutes of rest breaks per half-hour of the writing test to manage potential behaviours experienced due to anxiety, which he has regularly displayed when participating in classroom learning and assessment. He was permitted to use a NAPLAN support person to assist in a manner the school deemed appropriate, e.g. shading in the 'answer bubbles' (at his direction) for the other tests.

Note: not all students with autism spectrum disorder will have the difficulties identified above. 
Calvin regularly uses a computer in the classroom.

Calvin accessed up to 5 minutes of rest breaks per half-hour of the writing test to assist with any potential frustrations.

Calvin was also allowed to access a NAPLAN support person if necessary.  

Ben is a Year 3 student
Scenario
  • Ben has been diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
  • Ben has a timed behaviour management strategy that allows him 10 minutes of break time per hour during classroom activities due to the sensory nature of his disability.
  • Ben’s teacher provides him with a flexible working schedule to complete tasks.
  • Ben likes the routines of the school day and therefore, wherever possible, needs to be explicitly prepared for changes to normal daily routines.
Key points to consider
  • Ben requires a flexible schedule to complete his tasks.
  • Ben has an obsessive trait.
  • Ben’s learning is impacted by his difficulties in processing sensory information. 
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable  NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 
Rest breaks  Rest breaks 
The teacher prepared Ben for the test by letting him know ahead of time what would be happening.

A social story was developed to prepare Ben for the nature of both the test and testing conditions. This included practice with the timer to be used on the test day.

In this case, it was agreed that up to 5 minutes of rest time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate. This reflects Ben's usual flexible practices in the classroom, which take account of his difficulties concentrating. 

The teacher prepared Ben for the test by letting him know ahead of time what would be happening.

A social story was developed to prepare Ben for the nature of both the test and testing conditions. This include practice with the timer to be used on the test day and access to the NAPLAN practice site.

Ben could access NAPLAN Online with 10 minutes of rest time per half-hour. This reflects Ben's usual flexible practices in the classroom, which take account of his difficulties concentrating. 

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Severe speech and/or physical impairment

Jenni is a Year 5 student

Scenario

  • Jenni has cerebral palsy.
  • Jenni is unable to walk, has limited use of her arms and one hand, and is unable to speak.
  • Jenni uses an electronic wheelchair and a talking machine.
  • In class, Jenni uses visual communication supports, some (modified) sign language and body gestures to communicate, including moving her head.
  • When accessing, and participating in, classroom learning and assessment, Jenni generally uses a computer with a multimedia tool (e.g. Clicker software), which enables her to write with whole words, phrases or pictures. Jenny also uses an augmentative communication device (e.g. Go Talk).
  • Jenni also frequently requires her classroom reading materials in large print.

Key points to consider

  • Jenni regularly uses assistive technology and software to access her classroom learning and assessment.
  • Jenni regularly uses large print alongside assistive technology to complete classroom learning and assessment tasks.
  • Staff available to sign test instructions where needed.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable   NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable  

Electronic test format 

Extra time 

Rest breaks 

Large print 

NAPLAN support person 

Scribe 

Reading, numeracy and conventions of language tests: NAPLAN Online with unsecured browser and assistive technology  

Jenni's school requested access to the NAPLAN tests in different ways to replicate Jenni's usual access to learning and assessment in the classroom; i.e. viewing the reading stimulus in large print, while accessing the questions via the electronic test format. (Jenni is eligible to use the electronic test format.)

In the NAPLAN tests, the use of multimedia tools/software that enable students to write with whole words, phrases, etc. is not permitted. To account for the adjustments, Jenni required to be able to access the tests via large print and on screen.

Ten minutes of extra time per half-hour was deemed appropriate for Jenni to participate in the writing test, and up to 20 minutes extra time per half-hour for the other tests.

Jenni was also allowed rest breaks as and when she required (up to 15 minutes in total per test). 

Despite her low vision, Jenni usually accesses a computer as she also has disabilities that restrict her movement. Jenni accesses the electronic test format as she can interact with NAPLAN Online using her current assistive technology. Jenni accesses the same administration and adjustments as described for paper.

However, Jenni accessed the writing test via the online browser, using her usual magnification software. This magnification software also requires the use of an unsecured browser.

Jenni accessed extra time (5 minutes per half-hour) as it takes longer to navigate tests with magnification.

 

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Temporary injuries / medical conditions

Sophie is a Year 5 student
Scenario
  • Two weeks before the NAPLAN tests, Sophie broke her right arm. She is right handed. Sophie has limited movement in her fingers due to both the cast and the injury she sustained.
  • Sophie finds gripping a pen with her right hand painful. She will be in a cast for many weeks.
  • For the last two weeks, Sophie has been using a computer in class to type out her written work.

Key points to consider

  • Sophie sustained the injury prior to the test.
  • Sophie sustained the injury to her prominent hand/arm used to participate in classroom learning and assessment tasks.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

NAPLAN support person 

Computer for the writing test (predictive text, spelling and grammar check turned off) 

Extra time 

NAPLAN support person 

Extra time 

Rest breaks 

Sophie may use a computer to complete her response to the writing test. A NAPLAN support person can be used for the language conventions, reading and numeracy tests (e.g. to shade in bubbles or write a short response or answer dictated by the student).

A NAPLAN support person must be either a teacher or other person as engaged by the school and should be familiar to a student. The NAPLAN support person cannot be a parent of a student or another student.

If no alternative adjustment is appropriate, a student must be marked absent from the test session. 

Sophie can participate in NAPLAN Online, as she has been using a computer to complete her class work while she has been injured. She may access a NAPLAN support person for conventions of language, reading and numeracy tests if necessary, depending on her ability to manipulate questions.

Sophie can complete the writing test on a device, accessing extra time and rest breaks.

If no adjustment is appropriate for a session, Sophie must be marked absent from that test session. 
Nick is a Year 9 student
Scenario
  • Nick has chronic type 1 diabetes, which is managed with insulin.
  • On occasions, Nick’s sugar levels may be erratic. Nick's school health-care plan identifies his schedule for the monitoring of his blood sugar. This occurs at regular intervals throughout the day. The plan also identifies that Nick always needs access to the blood monitor app on his mobile phone, even during assessments.
  • Nick self-manages his health care needs.
  • Nicks has no difficulties with his hearing, vision or motor sensory abilities.
  • In class learning and assessment, Nick is permitted to access appropriate snack foods, water or additional toilet breaks as required.
Key points to consider
  • Nick has chronic type 1 diabetes.
  • Nick can be excused from class for short breaks as part of his medical needs.
  • Nick uses an app on his mobile phone to monitor his blood sugar levels and must always access this, even during assessments, as it is a key part of his health-care plan.
  • Nick should test his BSL before commencing NAPLAN to ensure he is within an acceptable range to participate meaningfully in NAPLAN. 
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable  NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 
Rest breaks  Rest breaks 

Nick should test his blood sugar level (BSL) before commencing NAPLAN to ensure he is within an acceptable range.

In this case, it was determined by the school that Nick could access a total of 10–15 minutes of rest breaks time, as and when needed.

Nick was permitted to access his mobile phone app to monitor his blood sugar levels. Extra supervision was provided to ensure that Nick did not access other parts of the phone.

If BSL is increased, the time for rest breaks may need to be accessed as a student with type 1 diabetes requires a longer time period (more than 10–15 minutes) for their BSL to return to a normal range. If Nick is having difficulty managing his BSL, the school should consider rescheduling the test.

In this case, it was determined at the school that approximately 10–15 minutes of rest breaks time per test in total could be used by Nick, as and when needed.

Nick was permitted to access his mobile phone app to monitor his blood sugar levels/ Extra supervision was provided to ensure that Nick did not access other parts of the phone. 
William is a Year 9 student
Scenario
  • William has an acquired brain injury following an accident.
  • William now experiences some learning difficulties in areas where he previously excelled.
  • William’s injury has impacted his ability to process information, organise his routines and thoughts, and retrieve information from memory. He is often impatient and impulsive, resulting in inappropriate behaviour in class.
  • William’s teachers have implemented strategies to support him in all learning and assessment environments, including memory aid strategies (e.g. digital recording device with scripts downloaded electronically), planning techniques (e.g. mind mapping and highlighting) and reduced visual and noise distraction.
  • William is often late to school due to the impact of the acquired brain injury on his sleep patterns. He experiences fatigue at various times throughout the school day. 

Key points to consider

  • William regularly displays impulsive and inappropriate behaviour in the classroom.
  • William experiences fatigue that impacts on his attendance and behaviour in the classroom.
  • William’s performance is enhanced when provided an opportunity to use strategies that support his executive functioning.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable   NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 

Rest breaks 

Extra time (for planning and test completion) 

Electronic test format 

Rest breaks 

Extra time (for planning and test completion) 

The digital/electronic memory aid strategies etc., used by William in classroom learning and assessment, are not permitted in the NAPLAN tests.

It was determined that William was permitted to have 10 minutes of rest breaks and 10 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the test, where appropriate, due to the mental and physical fatigue he experiences, and the time it takes him to process information due to his injury.

William has experience using paper-based strategies like mind maps and lotus diagrams to collate key ideas before he becomes fatigued. These are then used as prompts. These also help him keep his place after taking breaks. 

The digital/electronic memory aid strategies, used by William in classroom learning and assessment, are not permitted in the NAPLAN Online tests.

If William uses devices in the classroom, it would be appropriate for him to participate in NAPLAN Online.

William could access 10 minutes of rest breaks and 10 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the test to manage his physical and mental fatigue. 

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Hearing disabilities

John is a Year 7 student

Scenario

  • John is profoundly deaf and is fluent in Auslan.
  • John has no difficulties reading or writing.
  • John’s classroom support teacher (who specialises in Auslan) regularly uses Auslan to confirm instructions relating to John’s classroom learning and assessment.

Key points to consider

  • John is profoundly deaf and regularly uses Auslan to communicate.
  • Availability of person proficient in Auslan during testing periods.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Extra time 

Scribe 

Oral/signed support 

Oral/signed support 

Audio alternative items 

Signing is permitted for sections of the test that can be read to all students (see 'reading to students').

There are no verbal components to the tests and as John has no difficulties reading or writing, and is fluent in Auslan, the provision of extra time was deemed not applicable in this case.

In other cases, extra time may be required, depending on the fluency in oral signage of the teacher and student in question, and whether the student requires the test instructions to be repeated throughout the test.

Some test questions in NAPLAN Online require headphones. The audio file used for dictation needs to be replaced with proofreading questions.

John continued to access his support person when needed.

Shari is a Year 3 student

Scenario

  • Shari has had several episodes of acute otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear), which is usually accompanied by pain and fever.
  • When Shari is experiencing an episode of otitis media, she does not respond to speech from various positions in the classroom and makes frequent requests for verbal communications to be repeated.
  • Shari's teachers have become aware that during these episodes, she is experiencing a degree of hearing loss that can vary with the progress of the infection.
  • Shari's specialist has indicated that the hearing loss she is experiencing is in the mild–moderate category.
  • Shari does not access or use signing.
  • Shari's speech perception is also affected, specifically her phonetic awareness, which has affected the development of her literacy skills.
Key points to consider
  • Shari's episodes of otitis media usually leave her in pain and/or with fever.
  • These episodes directly impact Shari’s ability to perform to her utmost capacity (in learning and assessment), even when not experiencing an episode of otitis media
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable
Rest breaks  Rest breaks 

Rest breaks may be applicable in this case if Shari is experiencing an episode of otitis media during the tests. In this case, Shari's school determined that 10 minutes of rest breaks per half-hour of the test was appropriate because of Shari's fluctuating condition and related pain.

If Shari experiences an acute episode of otitis media during the tests, it may be more appropriate to allow her to sit the test during a catch-up session. If she experiences an acute episode of otitis media during the entire test window, she can be marked absent.

As literacy is an issue, Shari is able to have all the test instructions and some questions read to her (see 'reading to students').

If Shari experiences an episode of otitis media, it may be appropriate for her to access audio alternative items for the spelling test. Alternatively, if she can hear through the headphones, she can access the read-aloud parts of the test using headphones.

If Shari experiences an acute episode of otitis media during the tests, it may be more appropriate to allow her to sit the test during a catch-up session. If she experiences an acute episode of otitis media during the entire test window, she can be marked absent.

Shari can continue to access rest breaks of 10 minutes per half-hour of the test because of her fluctuating condition and related pain. She can also have all test instructions and some questions read to her (see 'reading to students').

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Fatigue inducing conditions and/or attention disorders

Sherab is a Year 3 student

Scenario

  • Sherab has rod cone dystrophy (Retinitis Pigmentosa). This condition has caused his vision to deteriorate significantly and he experiences chronic fatigue.
  • Sherab is not a proficient braille user and his vision acuity requires him to access print materials larger than N36 font to read comfortably.
  • Sherab’s eyes may become painful during some classroom tasks.
  • Sherab regularly uses a computer and assistive technology in his class to complete his school learning and assessment, and often controls the spacing between words (e.g. double line spacing) to assist him when reading.
  • The impact of fatigue and need for breaks is recognised by his teachers.

Key points to consider

  • Sherab regularly uses assistive technology to access learning and assessment in the classroom.
  • Sherab suffers chronic fatigue.
  • Sherab requires font size larger than N36.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Electronic test format 

Rest breaks 

Extra time 

Braille 

Rest breaks 

Extra time 

Braille 

Sherab is eligible to use the electronic test format.

In this case, it was determined that rest breaks of up to 15 minutes in total be granted per test, as required, due to the fatigue Sherab experiences.

Extra time was also deemed appropriate, although Sherab may choose not to access this option as it may exacerbate his fatigue.

Sherab continues to access an electronic test format with the same administration and adjustments.

In this case, it was determined that rest breaks of up to 15 minutes in total be granted per test, as required, due to the fatigue Sherab experiences.

Extra time was also deemed appropriate, although Sherab may choose not to access this option as it may exacerbate his fatigue.
Christopher is a Year 7 student

Scenario

  • Christopher has been diagnosed by a medical practitioner as having dyspraxia as well as deficits relating to his motor proficiency and visual perception.
  • Christopher currently uses a scribe in class.
  • Christopher's diagnosis impacts on his ability to maintain attention to classroom tasks and affects his perception of colour.
  • The motor proficiency component is a physical disability that leads to rapid fatigue.
  • This has an impact on Christopher ‘s ability to sustain writing even after an extremely short period of time.
  • During independent classroom activities, extra time does not assist Christopher as it extends his feelings of fatigue and pain.
  • Christopher’s capacity to complete tasks is increased by using a support person/scribe.

Key points to consider

  • Christopher currently uses a support person/scribe in class for all his regular classroom learning and assessment.
  • Extra time does not assist Christopher when completing learning and assessment tasks independently.
  • Christopher has demonstrated that he performs tasks easier when he has access to particular colour themes while working on the computer.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Rest breaks 

Scribe (for the writing test) 

NAPLAN support person (for the other tests) 

Extra time 

Rest breaks 

Scribe (for the writing test) 

NAPLAN support person (for the other tests) 

NAPLAN colour theme / contrast of test 

A scribe can be used for the writing test. A NAPLAN support person can be used for the language conventions, reading and numeracy tests (e.g. to shade in bubbles or write a short response or answer dictated by the student).

In this case, it was determined that a rest breaks of up to 10 minutes per half-hour of the test be made available to Christopher because of his experiences of chronic fatigue and difficulties maintaining concentration. Christopher did not access extra time as it did not assist him due to his fatigue.

Christopher can continue to access rest breaks of up to 10 minutes per half-hour of the test. He could also continue to access a scribe for the writing task and a NAPLAN support person for the other sections of the test.

Christopher should have prior experience working with a colour theme if he is to do so while participating in NAPLAN. 

Samantha is a Year 3 student
Scenario
  • She has attention deficit disorder diagnosis and learning difficulties.
  • Samantha finds it difficult to concentrate on her classroom tasks. It often takes her longer than her peers to carry out and complete tasks.
  • Samantha has also been diagnosed (by a medical specialist) as having a functional vision problem. As a result, Samantha experiences the following difficulties:
    • poor form discrimination - the inability to pick up on small differences between similar-looking objects
    • poor visualisation - the inability to create mental images, which is key to spelling, writing, reading comprehension and mathematics. Samantha has problems with the concept of numbers, or 'seeing' a word spelt correctly in her mind.
  • Samantha experiences difficulties with multi-modal tasks, such as listening to the teacher at the same time as constructing a project (for example, hands-on activities in maths).
  • Samantha’s teachers use strategies that support her learning and assessment, including providing scaffolds in writing to assist with her organisation of ideas. 

Key points to consider

  • Samantha usually accesses her school work on coloured paper and coloured overlays.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable  NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable 

Extra time 

Coloured overlays 

Assistive technology  

Extra time 

NAPLAN magnifying tool 

NAPLAN colour themes 

Coloured overlays 

The provision of scaffolds for writing etc. are not permitted in the NAPLAN assessment setting.

In this case, it was determined at the school that up to 5 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate because of the difficulties Samantha contends with in assessment tasks due to her functional vision problem.

Samantha had all the test instructions and some of the questions read out to her (see 'reading to students'). 

After accessing the public demonstration site, Samantha’s teacher noted that she found the task easier to concentrate when accessing the black text with lilac background colour theme.

The provision of scaffolds for writing etc. are not permitted in the NAPLAN assessment setting.

In this case, it was determined at the school that up to 5 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate because of the difficulties Samantha contends with in assessment tasks due to her functional vision problem.

Samantha accessed the audio recordings provided on the NAPLAN Online platform. Where there was something she didn’t understand, she could ask her teacher for clarification (see 'reading to students'). 

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Learning and/or intellectual disabilities/behavioural difficulties

Mia is a Year 5 student

Scenario

  • Mia has difficulty reading texts printed on white paper due to an unspecified condition.
  • The school accommodates individual difference and for most of her classroom activities, Mia's worksheets and resources are printed onto coloured paper. This supports Mia’s participation in classroom learning and assessment.
  • Mia also has difficulty hearing, with glue ear being diagnosed by a medical practitioner.
  • Mia does not respond to quiet sounds and may appear inattentive.
  • While her hearing loss is not profound, Mia benefits from being close to the source of the sound.
  • Mia is always seated at the front of her classroom.

Key points to consider

  • Mia regularly uses coloured paper and overlays to assist in her completion of classroom learning and assessment tasks due to her difficulties reading text on white paper.
  • Mia requires specific seating positions in the classroom and testing situations, to ensure she can hear the instructions.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Coloured overlays 

Colour theme 

Coloured overlays 

Good management of the test environment will ensure that Mia can hear instructions. 

Mia accessed the public demonstration site and found that the black text with yellow background colour theme met her needs.

As NAPLAN Online uses headphones, Mia was close to the source of the sound for audio questions, e.g. spelling tasks.

Good management of the test environment continues is important so that Mia can hear instructions. 
Cheryl is a Year 5 student

Scenario

  • Cheryl has a mild intellectual disability.
  • Cheryl is enrolled in a support class (i.e. special setting for students with a mild intellectual disability).
  • Cheryl integrates into a regular Year 5 class for some curriculum learning areas.
  • Cheryl is cognitively behind her same-age peers in her literacy and numeracy skill development.
  • Cheryl is immature in some of her behaviours and social interactions, using non-complicated language and short sentences.
  • Cheryl's teachers scaffold her writing tasks with sentence starters and word banks to assist with vocabulary use in class.
  • Her teachers keep distracters to a minimum and repeat instructions or directions seeking clarification from Cheryl to ensure she understands.
  • The literacy demands of some activities require materials and information to be read to Cheryl, and for most of her classroom learning and assessment, she requires extra time to complete/participate appropriately.
  • Cheryl’s teachers provide her with a flexible schedule to complete her work.

Key points to consider

  • In-class numeracy and literacy tasks are differentiated for Cheryl.
  • Cheryl's cognitive development is slow compared to that of her same-age peers.
  • Cheryl's parents would like her to participate in all school learning and assessment, including NAPLAN.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Extra time 

Rest breaks 

Extra time 

Rest breaks 

The provision of writing scaffolds or sentence starters / word banks are not permitted in the NAPLAN assessment setting.

In this case, it was determined that up to 10 minutes of extra time per half-hour of the tests was appropriate because of Cheryl's regular need for extra time to comprehend instructions and complete tasks.

Cheryl can have all the test instructions and numeracy questions read to her, where appropriate. See 'reading to students'.

Cheryl accesses extra time (10 minutes per half-hour) due to the extra time that she needs to read and comprehend tasks. She can continue to have all test instructions read aloud to her. She accesses the platform audio, where provided, to access question content.

As with paper NAPLAN, the provision of writing scaffolds or sentence starters / word banks are not permitted in the NAPLAN assessment setting.

Shane is a Year 9 student

Scenario

  • Shane is enrolled in multiple education settings.
  • For the past two years, Shane has been attending a school in a specialist behaviour setting.
  • Shane is currently on a three-day/two-day model.
  • In the past, Shane had great difficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way, with several instances of serious violation of school rules.
  • Since Shane has been attending school in the specialist behaviour setting, he has been successfully practising different ways of handling difficult and stressful situations.
  • Shane has been learning how to independently manage change to routines and the consequence for his actions and behaviours.
  • Shane has developed skills to accept that one mistake in a task does not mean that the page is worthless and therefore destroyed.

Key points to consider

  • Shane is enrolled in multiple education settings.
  • Shane has displayed positive changes in behaviour including accepting consequences to his behaviour.
Paper-based NAPLAN adjustments relevant/applicable NAPLAN Online adjustments relevant/applicable

Extra time – for the student to regulate his behaviour  

NAPLAN support person to assist student to manage/regulate his behaviour 

Extra time – for the student to regulate his behaviour  

NAPLAN support person to assist student to manage/regulate his behaviour 

Students enrolled in multiple education settings should be encouraged to participate in NAPLAN testing in the setting where they are the most settled and can manage their behaviour. They need to understand that the teacher support is limited to the constraints of the testing regime.

Shane should sit the NAPLAN Online test in the setting where he is most settled and can manage his behaviour. Teacher support is limited to the constraints of the testing regime.

 

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